Né le 5 janvier 1592 à Lahore, il mourut le 22 janvier 1666 à Agraà l'âge de 74 ans. Near Varanasi his forces confronted a defending army sent from Delhi under the command of Prince Sulaiman Shukoh, son of Dara Shukoh, and Raja Jai Singh[61] while Murad did the same in his governorship of Gujarat and Aurangzeb did so in the Deccan. Aurangzeb also proceeded to use bribery to turn the Pashtun tribes against each other, with the aim that they would distract a unified Pashtun challenge to Mughal authority, and the impact of this was to leave a lasting legacy of mistrust among the tribes. [23][24] He also patronized works of Islamic and Arabic calligraphy. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. In 1614, commanding an army numbering around 200,000, Khurram began the campaign against Mewar. [22], Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband. Shah Jahan wished his eldest son Prince Dara Shukoh … [45] His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, which he built out of love for his wife, the empress Mumtaz Mahal. In 1702, Aurangzeb sent Daud Khan Panni, the Mughal Empire's Subhedar of the Carnatic region, to besiege and blockade Fort St. George for more than three months. [37] In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. [9][10][page needed] He was an accomplished military leader[11] whose rule has been the subject of praise, though he has also been described as the most controversial ruler in Indian history. His rule saw many grand building projects, including the Red Fort and the Shah Jahan Mosque. In 1687, Aurangzeb led his grand Mughal army against the Deccan Qutbshahi fortress during the Siege of Golconda. She was his first wife and chief consort as well as his favourite. [56] There were ideological differences — Dara was an intellectual and a religious liberal in the mould of Akbar, while Aurangzeb was much more conservative — but, as historians Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. En mettant au monde leur quatorzième enfant, elle meurt. Another army was sent to Malwa under Raja Jaswant Singh to persuade Murad who was advancing from Gujarat after crowning himself to turn back. If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. [34] Ram Puniyani states that Aurangzeb was not fanatically anti-Hindu, but rather continuously adapted his policies depending on circumstances. Heroes of Islam. Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. Il est le fils de Jehengar, le 4e empereur moghol d’Inde. [citation needed], In 1605, his father succeeded to the throne, after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khusrau – Khurram remained distant from court politics and intrigues in the immediate aftermath of that event, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangir's part. [29] Prince Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Abu ud-Muzaffar Shihab ud-Din Mohammad Sahib ud-Quiran ud-Thani Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (Urdu: شهاب الدین محمد خرم), or Shah Jahan. More epithets showed his secular and religious duties. In 1647, he was ordered by his father to take command of the provinces of Balkh and Badashkhan beyond the Hindukush. Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from their citizens. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end when the speech exceeds 100 decibels. The textile industry in the Mughal Empire emerged very firmly during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was particularly well noted by Francois Bernier, a French physician of the Mughal Emperor. [28] He was defeated at Bilochpur in March 1623. [62] The two armies clashed at Dharmat in April 1658, with Aurangzeb being the victor. The body was taken to the Taj Mahal and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.[44]. India at the time was a rich centre of the arts, crafts and architecture, and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in Shah Jahan's empire. The Mughal Empire's port city of Surat was sacked twice by the Marathas during the reign of Aurangzeb and the valuable port was in ruins. François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. [14] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care. [10] Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. [25] Her body was temporarily buried in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad, originally constructed by Shah Jahan's uncle Prince Daniyal along the Tapti River. [73] The chief qazi refusing to crown him in 1659, Aurangzeb had a political need to present himself as a "defender of the sharia" due to popular opposition to his actions against his father and brothers. Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649. But this time, his son Pirbudag rebelled, who was soon joined by Hasan Ali in Fars. [189] He died at his military camp in Bhingar near Ahmednagar on 20 February 1707 at the age of 89, having outlived many of his children. 11 Mourning of Shah Jehan. The Indologist Stanley Wolpert, emeritus professor at UCLA,[187] says that: the conquest of the Deccan, to which Aurangzeb devoted the last 26 years of his life, was in many ways a Pyrrhic victory, costing an estimated hundred thousand lives a year during its last decade of futile chess game warfare. Jai Singh won the fort of Purandar after fierce battle in which the Maratha commander Murarbaji fell. Mughal influence waned shortly after that and the British Empire took hold in India in the 1750s with the East India Company. The allegation was encouraged by Aurangzeb, who caused the diwan's son to seek retribution for the death under the principles of Sharia law. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). He travelled a long distance to the Deccan to conquer the Marathas and eventually died at the age of 88, still fighting the Marathas. Aurangzeb, the third son, gathered a well-trained army and became its chief commander. The Qutbshahis had constructed massive fortifications throughout successive generations on a granite hill over 400 ft high with an enormous eight-mile long wall enclosing the city. [citation needed], The Battle of Saraighat was the last battle in the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam. He further writes how "Artisans manufacture of silk, fine brocade, and other fine muslins, of which are made turbans, robes of gold flowers, and tunics worn by females, so delicately fine as to wear out in one night, and cost even more if they were well embroidered with fine needlework". Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.[48]. This event precipitated a family crisis with political consequences. [63] Having secured his position, Aurangzeb confined his frail father at the Agra Fort but did not mistreat him. During his 30 year reign, Shah Jahan transformedhis empire into a well-oiled military machine. However, he was spared at the request of his mother and replaced by Mirza Yusuf… The rebels were defeated and Akbar fled south to seek refuge with Sambhaji, Shivaji's successor. [169], In May 1672, the Satnami sect obeying the commandments of an "old toothless woman" (according to Mughal accounts) organised a massive[clarification needed] revolt in the agricultural heartlands of the Mughal Empire. After twenty-seven days of hard fighting, Bidar was captured by the Mughals and Aurangzeb continued his advance.

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